Thesis 3 Tagalog

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All the kernel sentence rules are brought together in the base rules of Tagalog kernel sentences.

Ten kinds of transformations are shown: pronoun transformation — declarative and imperative-—, negative transformation, yes-no interrogative transformation, yes-no negative interrogative transformation, pronoun-negative-interrogative transformation, ay inversion transformation, manner adverbial transformation, indirect object transformation, -in- passive transformation, and: nominalization transformation. CONCLUSION 136 A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 140 APPENDIX ' 1^3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT i s due t o the E x t e r n a l A i d O f f i c e , Government of Canada, f o r g i v i n g me the o p p o r t u n i t y t o pursue g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s i n L i n g u i s t i c s i n the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia on a Colombo S c h o l a r s h i p Grant; t o the I n s t i t u t e o f N a t i o n a l l anguage, Government of the P h i l i p p i n e s , f o r g i v i n g me a s t u d y l e a v e of absence f o r the d u r a t i o n of my g r a d u a t e work; t o P r o f .

At best, t h i s t h e s i s , using the techniques of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar, attempts to look i n t o the deep r e g u l a r i t i e s that u n d e r l i e Tagalog s t r u c t u r e s . There are at present s e v e r a l good d e s c r i p t i o n s of Tagalog syntax w r i t t e n i n the c l a s s i c a l or i n the s t r u c t u r a l t r a d i t i o n , but no work has yet been done i n l i n e w i t h the theory of t r a n s f o r -mational-generative grammar developed by Chomsky.

I have found only one published a r t i c l e on ^agalog trans-for-mational syntax, and i t i s about ambiguity i n Tagalog s t r u c t u r e s .

The i n v e s t i g a t i o n f i n d s some deep r e g u l a r i t i e s i n the language; and i t a l s o f i n d s some problems f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . S t a g e b e r g , An I n t r o d u c t o r y E n g l i s h Grammar (New York, 19657, PP. ^Andreas Koutsoudas, W r i t i n g T r a n s f 0 r m a t i o n a l Grammars: An I n t r o d u c t i o n (New York, 1966), , ", ^Noam Chomsky, A s p e c t s of t h e Theory of Syntax (Cambridge, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , 1965), pp.

3-k* 3 This i s n e i t h e r an exhaustive nor a f i n a l statement of the subject.PERALTA-PINEDA Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n o f L i n g u i s t i c The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date Abstract This study deals with the description of Tagalog syntax using the techniques of transformational-generative grammar. Specifically, the formulations in this work, follow, to a large extent, the statements of Chomsky in his "A Transformational Approach to Syntax." The primary aims of this work are to formu-late the basic rules of Tagalog kernel sentences, and to show some of the most common transformations in the language. 115 P r o n o u n - N e g a t i v e - I n t e r r o g a t i v e T r a n s f o r -m a t i o n 117 Ay I n v e r s i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 119 - I n - P a s s i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 123 Manner A d v e r b i a l 127 I n d i r e c t O b j e c t T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 129 v i CHAPTER PAGE N o m i n a l i z a t i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e n d e d f o r ( l ) the t e a c h e r of T a g a l o g , and ( 2 ) t h e new l e a r n e r of the language.Further, this thesis seeks to establish a basis for a more detailed study of the transformational syntax of Tagalog, and expects to provide a point of departure for future contrastive analyses of Tagalog and other languages. I t i s hoped t h a t the s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e the t e a c h e r w i t h b a s i c m a t e r i a l f o r the t e a c h i n g of the fundamentals of Tagalog t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e grammar.The investigation finds some deep regularities in the language; and it also finds some problems for further study and investigation. Ruth M c C o n n e l l , f o r i n t r o d u c i n g me t o t r a n s f o r -m a t i o n a l - g e n e r a t i v e t h e o r y , and f o r p a t i e n t l y g u i d i n g me i n the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s ; to Dr. Gre f o r h i s l e c t u r e s i n d i f f e r e n t a r e a s of L i n g u i s t i c s , f o r e n c o u r a g i n g me t o go on v/ith t h i s s t u d y , and f o r r e v i e w i n g t h i s work; t o P r o f e s s o r P. The purpose of t h i s s t u d y i s t h r e e f o l d : ( l ) to f o r m u l a t e the b a s i c f i n i t e r u l e s t h a t o p e r a t e i n the g e n e r a t i o n of an i n f i n i t e number of Tagalog s e n t e n c e s , based on o b s e r v a b l e f a c t s of the language and i n l i n e v/ i t h the i n t u i t i o n o f the n a t i v e s p e a k e r ; ( 2 ) t o show a few o f the most common t r a n s f o r m s ; and ( 3 ) t o c o n s t r u c t t h e r e b y a b a s i s f o r a more comprehensive s t u d y o f Tagalog s y n t a x .TAGALOG TRANS FOPi MATIONAL SYNTAX: A PRELIMINARY STATEMENT by Po n c i a n o B. A., U n i v e r s i t y of Santo Tomas M a n i l a , P h i l i p p i n e s , 19^8 LL. Quezon U n i v e r s i t y M a n i l a , P h i l i p p i n e s , 1952 Diploma, Supreme Court o f t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , 1953 A T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree of Mas t e r of A r t s i n t he Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n of L i n g u i s t i c s We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967 In p re sen t i ng t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the- L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study, I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion f o r ex ten s i ve copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representat ives. It i s understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n permiss ion POtf CTANO B. 96 Base R u l e s of Tagalog K e r n e l Sentences 99 III,; TRANSFORMATIONS 103 Pronoun T r a n s f o r m a t i o n — D e c l a r a t i v e and I m p e r a t i v e 107 N e g a t i o n T r a n s f o r m a t i o n 110 Yes-No I n t e r r o g a t i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 112 N e g a t i v e - I n t e r r o g a t i v e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Bowers, f o r h i s s u g g e s t i o n s ; and t o M i s s Maura San Andres, f o r s u p p l y -i n g the n o t a t i o n a l symbols and the t r e e s t r u c t u r e s . Such a grammar may a l s o p r o v i d e a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r f u t u r e c o n t r a s t i v e a n a l y s e s of t h e s y n t a x of Tagalog and o t h e r l a n g u a g e s .T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n c o r p o r a t e s and e x p r e s s e s the f a c t s about the sentence t h a t a re a v a i l a b l e t o the s p e a k e r - h e a r e r of the language. See Noam Chomsky, "A T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l Approach to S y ntax," i n T h i r d Texas Conference on Problems of L i n g u i s t i c A n a l y s i s ( A u s t i n , Texas, 1962) pp. ^Noam Chomsky, S y n t a c t i c S t r u c t u r e s (The Hague, 1965), p. ^Noam Chomsky, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n P a u l R o b e r t s , E n g l i s h Syntax (New York, 1964), p. 5 T r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l grammar i s one grammar t h a t meets the r e q u i r e m e n t s s e t f o r t h above.T h i s grammar, a sentence grammar, d e a l s w i t h the p r o c e s s e s u n d e r l y i n g the p r o d u c t i o n o f s e n t e n c e s , and a l s o w i t h the e x i s t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p among s e n t e n c e s .A number of Filipino intellectuals were seized and accused of complicity with the mutineers.After a brief trial, three priests—José Burgos, Jacinto Zamora, and Mariano Gómez—were publicly executed.F i r s t of a l l , a language, i n Chomsky's term,8 i s a f i n i t e o r i n f i n i t e s e t o f s e n t e n c e s , each one of whi c h i s f i n i t e i n l e n g t h and c o n s t r u c t e d out of a f i n i t e s e t of elements.I n t h i s sense, grammar i s a system of f i n i t e r u l e s t h a t enumerates an i n f i n i t e number of p o s s i b l e u t t e r a n c e s , and a s s i g n s to each g e n e r a t e d g r a m m a t i c a l sentence i t s p r o p e r s t r u c t u r a l d e s c r i p t i o n .

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