Term Paper About Atmosphere

Term Paper About Atmosphere-84
The question of responsibility for climate change is central to public and policy discourse over actions to curb greenhouse gas emissions and limit adverse impacts.The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” among nations, signaling the recognition that nations that had produced the larger share of historical emissions bore a greater responsibility for avoiding “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate” (UNFCCC ).

The question of responsibility for climate change is central to public and policy discourse over actions to curb greenhouse gas emissions and limit adverse impacts.The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities” among nations, signaling the recognition that nations that had produced the larger share of historical emissions bore a greater responsibility for avoiding “dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate” (UNFCCC ).

Recent findings that nearly two-thirds of total industrial CO emissions can be traced to 90 major industrial carbon producers have drawn attention to their potential climate responsibilities.

Here, we use a simple climate model to quantify the contribution of historical (1880–2010) and recent (1980–2010) emissions traced to these producers to the historical rise in global atmospheric CO), ∼29–35% (GMST), and ∼11–14% (GSL) since 1980 (based on best-estimate parameters and accounting for uncertainty arising from the lack of data on aerosol forcings traced to producers).

Kruschke, Tim (Scientist 2015-2018) Li, Haiyan (CSC-Doktorandin) Dr. Petrick, Christof (Ph D thesis Freie Universität Berlin 2013; Scientist 2009-2013) Scheef, Helga (student helper; Master thesis Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel 2014) Dr. Thieblémont, Rémi (Scientist 2013-2016) Walther, Sophia (student helper; Bachelor thesis Freie Universität Berlin 2011) Dr.

Lubis, Sandro (Ph D thesis Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel 2016; Scientist 2013-2016) Maas, Josefine (student helper; Bachelor thesis Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel 2013, Master thesis 2016) Dr. Wang, Wuke (Ph D thesis Freie Universität Berlin 2015; Scientist 2011-2016) Geopotential height (contours) and temperature (colours) on the 10h Pa pressure level over the northern hemisphere.

Hansen, Felicitas (Ph D thesis Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel 2015; Scientist 2010-2015) Kadow, Christopher (student helper; Diploma thesis Freie Universität Berlin 2011) Dr.

Kemena, Tronje (Ph D thesis Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel 2017) Kinzel, Julian (student helper; Master thesis Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel 2013) Dr.concentrations would be directly relevant to impacts such as ocean acidification, while GMST correlates closely with many terrestrial and ocean impacts. Calibrated with historical observations and fully coupled global climate models, they can provide robust output to characterize global atmospheric CO), and GSL.This approach allows for natural and anthropogenic forcings to be included or excluded to test the relative contributions from anthropogenic emissions at policy-relevant levels of uncertainty.A benefit of the simple climate model approach is the ability to explore the emissions traced to major carbon producers in a way that is consistent with major climate- and impact-relevant Earth processes.Since annual carbon emissions partition between the main carbon reservoirs—ocean, terrestrial, and atmosphere—a climate model can assess the fraction of CO lifetime in the atmosphere and the resulting change in GMST.Modeling the complex interactions between dynamical, physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere from the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) to the Earth’s surface and its interaction with the ocean circulation is necessary to understand the underlying physical mechanisms. Katja Matthes GEOMAR Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel Western Shore Duesternbrooker Weg 2024105 Kiel Germanykmatthes(at)Tel.: 49 4 Personal Assistent: Silke Gesinnsgesinn(at)Tel.: 49 4 Dr. Robin Pilch Kedzierski (Scientist)rpilch(at)Tel.: 49 4 Dr.Observations on the other hand are an important component for monitoring atmosphere-ocean interactions as well as improving and validating climate models. Karl Bumke (Scientist)kbumke(at)Tel.: 49 4 Davina Bibiella (Manager of Baltic Gender (Horizon 2020))dbibiella(at)Tel.: 49 4 Dr. Sebastian Wahl (Scientific Programmer)swahl(at)Tel.: 49 4 Wolfgang Wicker (student helper)wwicker(at)Blume, Christian (Ph D thesis Freie Universität Berlin 2012; Scientist 2009-2012) Brieber, Annika (Bachelor thesis Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel 2015) Ebsen, Lena (student helper WEB; Bachelor thesis Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel 2015) Eirund, Gesa (student helper; Master thesis Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel 2016) Dr.Emissions traced to seven investor-owned and seven majority state-owned carbon producers were consistently among the top 20 largest individual company contributors to each global impact across both time periods.This study lays the groundwork for tracing emissions sourced from industrial carbon producers to specific climate impacts and furthers scientific and policy consideration of their historical responsibilities for climate change.The first, 1880–2010, represents the historical period with sufficient data available.The second, 1980–2010, follows the publication of the U. National Research Council report on carbon dioxide and climate and represents the period of growing awareness in the scientific, fossil energy industry, and policy communities of climate change risks associated with anthropogenic carbon emissions (NRC emissions (subtracting lubricants, petrochemicals, road oil, and other non-energy, non-combustion uses) between 18 to the 83 industrial producers of oil, natural gas, coal, and 7 cement manufacturers with annual production exceeding 8 Mt C/year in 2006.

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