The development of sweet corn-based syrups, increased vegetable oil consumption, food marketing strategies, relatively inexpensive cost of food in America, suppression of health information, and popularity of sugar-sweetened beverages have been speculated as likely factors in this increased intake [17,18].
Moreover, behaviors related to reduced energy expenditure, such as duration of television watching, are associated with increased BMIs .
However, less than 5% of cases of childhood obesity can be attributed to a single, identifiable cause .
Rather, obesity remains a complicated interplay of genetics, epigenetics, society, behaviors, and environmental factors.
childhood obesity, obesity management, obesity prevention Obesity-related behaviors are a leading cause of premature, preventable death in the United States, second only to smoking .
Obesity is associated with many chronic diseases, including, but not limited to, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease, coronary artery disease, and hypercholesterolemia .Twin studies suggest a high heritability of adiposity .Epidemiologic studies of obesity reveal a higher risk in Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and American Indian children .While these conditions typically affect adults, these comorbidities have become a growing concern in the pediatric population .Rates of obesity are at epidemic levels, and American children have not been exempt.Currently there are an estimated 43 million children under the age of 5 who are overweight or obese, a figure expected to rise to 60 million by 2020 .In 2014, more than 12% of American kindergarteners were obese, while nearly 15% were overweight.Obese adults strongly influence the risk of childhood obesity, and obese children are at high risk for becoming obese adults .Overweight in children is defined as ≥ 85 percentile and severe obesity is ≥ 99%ile [5,6].Many factors contribute to the obesity epidemic, reflecting the complex nature of the disease itself.Rare single gene defects in the leptin signaling pathway can cause obesity .