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Drawing upon centuries of experience, Indians continued to build structures to catch, hold and store monsoon rainwater for the dry seasons to come.These traditional techniques, though less popular today, are still in use and efficient.Constructed in an area with naturally high elevation on three sides, a storage pit is made by excavating the area, and excavated soil is used to create a wall on the fourth side.
In India, a warming climate is drying up lakes and rivers, while rapid urbanisation and water pollution are putting enormous pressure on the quantity and quality of surface and ground water.
The country’s fragile agricultural system still depends primarily on rainfall and a bad monsoon season can wreck havoc on the national economy.
Given that these methods are simple and eco-friendly for the most part, they are not just highly effective for the people who rely on them but they are also good for the environment.
History tells us that both floods and droughts were regular occurrence in ancient India.
The little rain that the region received would be diverted to man-made tanks through canals built on the hilly outskirts of cities.
The water would then percolate into the ground, raising the water table and recharging a deep and intricate network of aquifers.e all know water is essential, but too many of us think it’s unlimited.In reality, fresh water is a finite resource that is rapidly becoming scarce.This prevents structural damage to the water pits that are also called madakas in Karnataka and pemghara in Odisha.The Kuruma tribe (a native tribe of Wayanad) uses a special type of well, called the panam keni, to store water.Here is a brief account of the unique water conservation systems prevalent in India and the communities who have practised them for decades before the debate on climate change even existed.Jhalaras are typically rectangular-shaped stepwells that have tiered steps on three or four sides.A Taanka is a cylindrical paved underground pit into which rainwater from rooftops, courtyards or artificially prepared catchments flows.Once completely filled, the water stored in a taanka can last throughout the dry season and is sufficient for a family of 5-6 members.Paddy cultivation in this relatively low rainfall area depends mostly on ahar pynes.Johads, one of the oldest systems used to conserve and recharge ground water, are small earthen check dams that capture and store rainwater.