For if society did in fact systematically assign advantages according to race, this would be unjust from a colorblind point of view, and thus turn a person's race into a morally relevant characteristic (if membership in certain racial groups means that one is unjustly disadvantaged, this may justify remedies directed toward those groups).
Advocates of colorblindness either reject (d) the idea that there are cultural differences among racial groups, or advocate individualism: the view that people should be judged according to their individual merits, not according to the stereotypical traits ascribed to or manifested by (many or most but not all members of) their group. singled out blacks, understood as members of a biological race, for discriminatory treatment.
Because this bibliography is thematically organized, the same work may appear more than once, sometimes with page references to the portion of the work particularly focused on the given theme.
The focus is on race, particularly on whites and blacks in the U.
Eliminate (f) and (g) (actual and normative social inequality) as elements of social structure and subjective understanding, and racial identities might be transformed into relatively benign bases of cultural or ancestral affiliation--much as certain varieties of white ethnicity have become in relation to one another (for example, in the U.
S., being of Irish compared to Scandinavian ancestry).(4) Justify a principle of "colorblindness": According to this principle, race is an "irrelevant" characteristic of individuals and therefore never a justified basis for treating people differently.For instructional purposes, it is therefore worthwhile to survey and address students' understandings of these concepts and to explicitly define your own use of these concepts.Concepts of race, gender and other ascriptive identities are "cluster" concepts: they refer to disparate elements, and not all uses of the concept need include every element.This is an annotated bibliography of resources on race, gender, and affirmative action intended for the use of faculty who are designing courses concerning race, gender, and affirmative action, and for students and browsers interested in a guide to the literature.This bibliography cites three types of sources: (1) short, accessible articles suitable for undergraduate teaching (noted with an asterisk); (2) longer and more technical works useful for graduate instruction or faculty reference; (3) sources available on the web (underlined, with links).Although (a)-(c) constitute necessary elements of anything that can count as a racial concept, what makes the concept of "race" so politically consequential is the additional elements that may go along with it: (d) cultural differences (real or imagined): superficially, in preferences over food, dress, music, etc.; more consequentially, in religion, levels of "civilization," values, virtues and vices (e.g., work ethic, aggression); (e) biological subspecies: the idea that ancestry defines genetically distinct and isolated breeding populations that have different body types and different capacities or dispositions for manifesting culturally valued or disvalued traits; (f) actual social stratification: the idea that the races are arranged in a social hierarchy of power, privilege, prestige, or wealth; (g) normative social stratification: the idea that the races ought to be arranged in a social hierarchy; (h) subjective identity: individuals' conceptions of themselves as "raced" and affirmation or repudiation of this identity (e.g., through "passing").(1) Justify and explain racial hierarchy.According to theories of biological racism, (a) - (c) define (e) human subspecies that have different capacities or dispositions for (d) culturally valued or disvalued traits and therefore (f) are and (g) ought to be arranged in a cultural hierarchy.This position follows from a conception of race reduced to (a) - (c) alone.It is evident that (a) superficial physical differences, such as skin color, are morally irrelevant.Thus, one's concept of race need not endorse the reality of races.Skeptics about human races generally believe that some of the features ascribed to different races are imaginary (for example, the idea, held by some Americans, that blacks have an extra muscle in their foot), but more importantly, that the grouping of individuals into "races" is arbitrary--as arbitrary as political boundaries.