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The desire to produce farm animals with outstanding and useful characteristics is ancient.One of the reasons that cloning is attractive is that it reduces the effort and time needed for farmers to do what they have been doing for years: selecting and propagating the best of the herd.It is here that concerns are loudly voiced and take up headlines in the media.
Although this procedure had been attempted for decades, Dr.
Ian Wilmut and colleagues at the Roslin Institute in Scotland were able to create conditions that allowed the adult cell nucleus to reprogram its DNA, enabling their success with Dolly.
Therefore Dolly answered a major biological question Does the DNA of a cell become irreversibly modified as the cell becomes specialized and differentiates? The DNA of a cell that has developed to fulfill a specific function clearly can be reprogrammed to direct the development of a new individual.
New questions of basic science are being posed: How does the reprogramming occur? There are still obvious problems as evidenced from the numerous deaths of cloned animals that occur just before or after birth.
For example, in a case where one member of a couple carries a gene for disease, [cloning] u...
Ever since the announcement of the birth of Dolly three years ago, additional sheep, cows, goats, pigs and mice have been cloned.
In cloning, we are requiring that a differentiated cell (e.g.
udder cell) reprograms or resets its genetic information so that it acts as a fertilized egg.
Clones: A group of genetically identical organisms.
Ever since the belief that cloning was a possibility, and especially since it has been developed, it has been a major conflict in the ethical world of values.