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[cited 12/12/2010]By the early fifties artists began to realise that their culture was being highly determined by mass media, new technology and by social change this was an effect of increased Americanization of Europe states T. The older generation of artist such as Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth were not kin to reflect the new cultural transformation; it was this that made the Independent group held an informal meeting to discuss the cultural events at the institute of contemporary arts in London states Osterworld, 2007 (Pg 63).Members of this institution include Richard Hamilton and Neil Henderson they were said to be the organisational minds of the groups states Osterworld, 2007 (Pg63).Blood red capitals, the machine gun, harsh black and white above the dark green jungle leafs symbolised a state of war in ‘Takka Takka’ states Honnef, 2007 (Pg 50).
ACW 1 Pop Art Movement The art movement I have chosen to study is Pop Art, before I decided on the movement of my choice I looked at other movements such as Impressionism and Surrealism.
Both of these movements had their own unique qualities however, I found Pop Art very intriguing and wanted to look further into the movement.
By this stage American Pop Art had spread from New York through to the West Coast, Canada and later to Europe and continuing to Britain even though Pop Art had already made its mark here, states osterworld 2007(Pg 92).
The last phase of American Pop Art was characterized by an acerbic, radical realism that had come from American origin and specialised in urban social relations, radical realism soon become an international movement stated Osterworld 2007 (Pg 92) Andy Warhol, Richard Hamilton and Roy lichinestein were the main key players in Pop Art; Richard Hamilton is one of the main British Pop Artists, he was born In London 1922-stated Osterworld, 2007 (Pg 183).
Pop art faced troubled times by the end of 1960’s, Pop art had not changed the definition of art or its self-importance it did however help revitalise outdated subjects states D. American critic Harold Rosenberg in 1969 conducted an essay ‘The Art World: Marilyn Mondrian’ to summarise the relationship between Pop Art and its times, he stated “It might be added that the rising curve of aestheticism in the sixties, with its concept of the world from the intensifying politico- social crisis and intellectual confusion in the United States” (Maddoff 1997, p182.) This statement is taken from Mc Carthy, 2000 (Pg 65).
There was some truth in Rosenberg statement Pop Art had revealed the tensions of a moment that is was in trouble, the boom of the economy which helped Pop Art raise to success this was than shattered by the anxiety of the Cold War states Mc Carthy 2000 (Pg 66). Lichtenstein followed a series of steps to create his ‘dotted’ images, firstly ‘was to project the original canvas with the aid of a projector, therefore creating a similarity between mechanical production and the world of trivial feelings.He then covered the face with a dot pattern’, states Honnef, 2004. Warhol created paintings that can be easily recognisable, anything from panic tables to coke bottles – ‘all the great modern things that Abstract Expressionists tried to avoid’, stated Ostworld, 2007 (Pg 167).One of Warhol’s most iconic paintings was Campbell’s Soup; it was a mixture of painting, silkscreen and a stamp process as well reflected on social background states Honnef, 2004 (Pg 88).The impact of mass media, star cult and the raise of New York and Hollywood was a key impact for Pop Art states Osterworld, 2007 (Pg83).Guided by change in society a younger generation of artist were starting to shine through.Andy Warhol is most associate with Pop Art, born in 1930 in Pittsburgh he has created some of the most iconic images for example; Campbell’s Soup Can (1968) and 80 TWO Dollar Bills (Front and Rear) (1962) states Honnef, 2004 (Pg 86).Warhol’s working methods is a process of ‘action and reaction’, he purposely leaves borders open between production, product and reproduction states Osterworld, 2007 (Pg 167).One of Hamilton most well known paintings is called ‘My Marilyn (paste up)’; he created this two years after her death states K. The term ‘paste up’ is used by commercial artist to describe the layout ready for production and printing, he arranged the painting into twelve photos on a canvas; ‘their frames identifying them as contact prints from a photo session on the beach’ states Honnef, 2004 (Pg38).Hamilton created other paintings; Interior II (1964), Towards a Definitive statement on the coming Trends in Men’s wear and Accessories (1960) and Trafalgar Square (1965-67).