Medical Microbiology Case Studies With Answers

Santos sends the enzymatic solution to the lab for a LAL assay to make sure it was sterile (Limulus amebocyte assay: detects small amounts of endotoxin) - Lab test results show that the solution from the ultrasonic bath was positive for endotoxins - G- bacteria such as Burkholderia​ (found in liquid reservoirs and moist environments) can colonize water pipes and contaminate water - Dr.Santos treats her patients with ​prednisone (topical anti-inflammatory drug) → she did not prescribe an antibiotic because TASS is not an infection Chapter 16: Missing in Action - 2 year old Jacob in the office with high fever Has a history of recurrent skin infections, fever and large lymph nodes Pediatrician notices that his lungs do not sound clear → chest X ray exam - Mass in right lung (pneumonia) → treats him with antibiotics After a few weeks, he gets it again → biopsy of mass → reveals Aspergillus fungi Leukocytes are the cells that fight infection - His WBC count is too high Dr requests a NBT test → his neutrophils are not working as well as they should - Neutrophils are missing an oxidase and cant oxidize NADPH Diagnosed with Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) → phagocytes dont work like they should Need to find a way to stimulate the immune system to kill the fungi in his bloodstream Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme used to break down superoxide molecules Treat with recombinant gamma interferon → not a cure Chapter 17: It’s just a scratch - Jo Anna Marsden (medical examiner) receives an autopsy order from Mrs.See budding yeasts with a wide capsule in India ink preparation of spinal fluid.

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Fungal spores are inhaled into the sinuses, resulting in lesions on the face.

See Laboratory Diagnosis for additional information. A 40-year-old man complains of watery, foul-smelling diarrhea and flatulence for the past 2 weeks. Of the protozoa that are common causes of diarrhea, Giardia and Cryptosporidium cause watery diarrhea, whereas Entamoeba causes bloody diarrhea.

In some of the cases, the true-false type of analysis is used.

There are some scattered illustrations of clinical phenomena and test results.

Photographs are provided at relevant locations; however one has to place the mouse above the links to see the images.

I will come up with few more cases in due course of time.

Chapter 14: Bathroom Break - Jamil is in the bathroom again → UTI 6 months ago and now has fever chills and diarrhea - Lost 15 pounds since hospitalization - 75, retired, lives with wife and son - Treated with antibiotics ​ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin - Jamil’s physician thinks he has noroviral gastroenteritis → orders stool sample → ​return positive for ​Clostridium difficile - C difficile is a bacterium involved in 20% of nosocomial infections - Low mortality rate (15%) - Physician gives him antibiotic metronidazole (interferes with anaerobic respiration) to treat it - Jamil checks to see if other patients have developed C difficile diarrhea and colitis → 20 others test positive - Transmission can be prevented by wearing gloves, using disposable rectal thermometers and stopping overuse of antibiotics - C difficile is acquired by ingesting bacteria or its endospores from direct contact between people or indirect contact via fomites (objects that carry infection) - UTIs the most common HAI (hospital acquired infection) and is considered an epidemic Chapter 15: The eyes have it - Kerry Santos, opthalmologist, performed 10 cataract surgeries - 8/10 of her patients have unusual inflammation.

Pupils are fixed but they do not respond to the light - She suspects TASS (toxic anterior segment syndrome) which is caused by - Chemicals on surgical instruments from improper cleaning - Products introduced into the eye during surgery (washing solutions or medications) - Other substances that enter the eye during or after surgery (ointments or talc from gloves) - Infection couldnt have happened this quickly, they take 3-4 days → intoxication - Dr.

Karen is not convinced by Mary’s arguments in favor of vaccination, and she counters with seve... Trudeau, who performed a seminal early experiment validating the germ theory of infection.

The immune response to a vaccine is influenced by the nature of the vaccine and the delivery method. Part I introduces Trudeau's Rabbit Island experiment, which is simple and easy for beginning or non-major student...

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