These individual factors include age, gender, complications during pregnancy and delivery, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and substance use.Some factors operate before birth (prenatal) or close to, during, and shortly after birth (perinatal); some can be identified in early childhood; and other factors may not be evident until late childhood or during adolescence.
These individual factors include age, gender, complications during pregnancy and delivery, impulsivity, aggressiveness, and substance use.Some factors operate before birth (prenatal) or close to, during, and shortly after birth (perinatal); some can be identified in early childhood; and other factors may not be evident until late childhood or during adolescence.Tags: How To Conclude A Literature Review ExampleFormat For Business PlanSupply Chain Management Dissertation TopicsAbortion Pros And Cons EssayScience Gcse With CourseworkCase Study Writer DescriptionAustralia And Japan Relationship Essay
Rather it focuses on factors that are most relevant to prevention efforts.
(For reviews of risk factor literature, see, for example, Hawkins et al., 1998; Lipsey and Derzon, 1998; Rutter et al., 1998.) The chapter discusses risk factors for offending, beginning with risks at the individual level, including biological, psychological, behavioral, and cognitive factors.
A longitudinal study of a representative sample from high-risk neighborhoods in Denver also found a growth in the self-reported prevalence of serious violence from age 10 through late adolescence (Kelley et al., 1997).
Females in the Denver sample exhibited a peak in serious violence in midadolescence, but prevalence continued to increase through age 19 for the boys.
late adolescence, and fall through young adulthood (see, e.g., Farrington, 1986a; National Research Council, 1986).
Some lawbreaking experience at some time during adolescence is nearly universal in American children, although much of this behavior is reasonably mild and temporary.Social-level risk factors are discussed next; these include family and peer relationships.Finally, community-level risk factors, including school and neighborhood attributes, are examined.Furthermore, any individual factor contributes only a small part to the increase in risk.It is, however, widely recognized that the more risk factors a child or adolescent experiences, the higher their risk for delinquent behavior.Clearly, genes affect biological development, but there is no biological development without environmental input.Thus, both biology and environment influence behavior.Research over the past few decades on normal child development and on development of delinquent behavior has shown that individual, social, and community conditions as well as their interactions influence behavior.There is general agreement that behavior, including antisocial and delinquent behavior, is the result of a complex interplay of individual biological and genetic factors and environmental factors, starting during fetal development and continuing throughout life (Bock and Goode, 1996).Some of the samples were specifically chosen from high-risk environments.Care must be taken in generalizing this literature to girls and minorities and to general populations.