The product may be rapidly removed from the sphere of the reaction by distillation, by extraction, or by addition to a compound that does not enter into electrochemical conversions.
The yield of electrosynthesis may vary as a result of various chemical reactions with the starting, intermediate, and final compounds.
The intermediate and final products may participate in various electrochemical reactions on the electrode surface.
If the desired product of the electrosynthesis is formed in an intermediate step, the electrolysis must be performed at the electrode potential that corresponds to that step. Elektrokhimicheskii sintez organicheskhikh veshchestv.
When performing an electrosynthesis in which side reactions cause a decrease in the yield of the desired product, a high current concentration (up to several hundred A/l) must be used.
Starting materials that dissociate ionically in solution and organic compounds that possess polar functional groups undergo electroreduction or electrooxidation with greatest ease.
In light of this, I seek to take Kolbe electrolysis a different route and apply it to the synthesis of alkyl halides.
Based on the literature I've come across, the most "efficient" electrolytic way of producing alkyl halides may not in fact be Kolbe electrolysis but rather the Hofer-Moest reaction (non-Kolbe electrolysis) in which the alkyl radicals are further oxidized to their carbonium cation counterparts and therefore react more readily with the halide anion present in solution.
Perhaps the best and most well known way of doing this involves what is known as Kolbe electrolysis which can be generally summarized using the following reaction equation: 2RCOO- = 2CO2 2e- R-R Although this process may not be the most efficient for producing many of the chemicals and reagents we are familiar with it is a simple and safe method that can be carried out at home for producing small quantities of a desired organic compound.
With that in mind, alkyl halides are often the most difficult chemicals for the amateur chemist to obtain easily for at home experiments as many of you may agree.