The various guides thus specify order of appearance, for example, of publication date, title, and page numbers following the author name, in addition to conventions of punctuation, use of italics, emphasis, parenthesis, quotation marks, etc., particular to their style.A number of organizations have created styles to fit their needs; consequently, a number of different guides exist.Other styles include a list of the citations, with complete bibliographical references, in an end section, sorted alphabetically by author.
More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears.
Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not).
With so much information now available online, it’s hardly surprising that most students end up citing websites in their academic work.
But since most referencing systems focus on traditional sources like books and journals, knowing how to do this can be tricky.
It can be hard to spot the author and publication date for websites, though, so make sure to check carefully before omitting this information.
As with any source used in your work, you should list all cited websites in the reference list at the end of your document. The ‘date of update’ field only applies if the page has been updated since it was published, so don’t worry about this if no updates are listed. the date you accessed the site) is required for all online sources, though.For instance: Rousseau converted to Catholicism in 1728 (Bertram, 2010).Websites don’t have page numbers, so these aren’t required when quoting an online source.Available at https://ww2org.uk/makeahomeforwildlife/givenatureahomeinyourgarden/gardenactivities/growfoodformoths/ [Accessed 19 September 2016].Although ‘Harvard referencing’ is commonly used by UK universities, there are dozens of variations on the basic parenthetical citation system described here.The notes system may or may not require a full bibliography, depending on whether the writer has used a full-note form or a shortened-note form.For example, an excerpt from the text of a paper using a notes system without a full bibliography could look like: In the humanities, many authors also use footnotes or endnotes to supply anecdotal information.However, you could include a paragraph or section number (use ‘para.’ to signal a paragraph number or the ‘§’ symbol to denote a section): According to Bertram (2010, § 2.1), Rousseau thought that morality is often displaced by ‘the impulse to dominate, oppress and exploit’. the HMRC): Tax avoidance often involves contrived transactions that serve no purpose other than exploiting legal loopholes (HMRC, 2016).When no author is named for a webpage, you can give an organisational author. If no date of publication is available, use ‘n.d.’ to indicate this: Moths are ‘an essential part of food chains’ (RSPB, n.d.).The information needed here is: Author Surname, Initial(s). In practice, the reference list entry for a website would look like this: Bertram, C. Available at plato.stanford.edu/entries/rousseau/ [Accessed 24 October 2016].Of course, if a webpage is missing a named author or date of publication, you should indicate this in the reference list: RSPB (n.d.) [Online].