Pollution can be as a result of chemical substances or energy, such as heat, light or noise.Pollutants, which are the elements of pollution, can be naturally occurring or as a result of foreign substances or energies.Refers to a process by which groups of individuals use power and influence to work together in collective decision making.
They are considered to be either problems or controversies that are related to moral values of a people.
Social problems can be classified into 4 main groups which include; politics, pollution, climate change and poverty.
Pollution is a major social problem everywhere because of the presence of human economic activities such as industrial activity and day to day activities.
Industrial activity is the main source of pollution contributing to over 70% of world’s water and land pollution.
RPS specify the portion of electricity that must stem from renewable energy sources for an electricity operator in a given state.
Even in those states that have adopted RPS, policies have varied greatly and thus can create varying incentives for electric utilities to invest in renewable energy.
This chapter empirically assesses the effect of RPS on the profitability of investor-owned utilities over the time period of 2000 to 2010.
The results suggest that (more stringent) RPS policies might have negatively affected the profitability of utilities over the sample period; as important, the empirical results show no evidence to support the Porter Hypothesis.
Relative poverty is the condition of having relatively fewer resources or less income than others within in a similar society or compared to the worldwide averages.
Absolute poverty on the other hand refers to having no resources at all.