However the poets of Tamil Maṇi-pravāḷam, by contrast, talk of the Tamil equivalent as a combination of pearls and rubies as the father languages are seen as distinct and complementing each other.
The period from AD 1500-1800 that sees Tamil enter the modern era is a continuation of the preceding period with a couple of key additions—Tantric ideas and masters are seen in both court and literature, and to a large extent, Tamil is now a full-fledged deity situated in the speaker’s inner self in a way it never was before, and this clearly has consequences that we see manifested in the present day.
More interesting are the Dravidian words in other languages of the world, such as in the Hebrew bible:, the male peacock’s tail, thus metonymically signifying peacocks.
One can, I suppose, imagine ancient Israelite mariners pointing to the splendid tail feathers and asking their Tamil-speaking colleagues what name it had…” (out-ness), the Tamil landscapes, the patronage of the Pandyas, and, later, the more northern Pallavas, of Tirukkuraḷ, and of the “epics” of Tamil literature.
Although it’s not the official language of any state.
The Sanskrit language is Indian in one sense, however, its purpose has been universal.“The Sanskrit language, weather, be its antiquity, is of wonderful structure, more perfect than Greek, more copious than the Latin and more refined than either.” – Sir William Jones in his address to the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal The impact of recognition and importance of Sanskrit is obvious from the very fact that researchers at NASA are gazing Sanskrit as an attainable machine language due to its excellent morphology that leaves little or no area for error.
The inset is syntactically complex, a tour de force of serially embedded images; but the statement the poem strives for is utterly simple, directly and laconically expressed, hence all the more devastating.
Here, as often in the , which is set in present day Kerala and sometimes seen as a later addition, is in a sense the true point of the story and fits a pattern of the narrative art form Tĕyyam which is often based on outrage and violent death leading to deification. If that stealthy thief, that duplicitous Govardhanashould even glance at me I shall pluck these useless breasts of minefrom their roots I will fling them at his chestand stop the fire scorching me.— From ‘The Sacred Songs of the Lady’, ĀṇṭāḷAnd then, we come upon the Imperial moment or, in other words, the high Chola period in history, which is known for political conquest and maritime adventures, but Shulman uses the word “imperial” to mean something less obvious—this is a time of linguistic expansion both within India and southeast Asia, of re-grammatisation (which now includes Tamil and Sanskrit grammar), of temple endowments, and a new social order that includes Buddhists, Jains, courtesans, village priests, merchants, courtiers, and shamans, all of whom use elite Tamil. Shulman sneaks into this chapter an utterly breathtaking meditation on the Tamil idea of The Chola empire disintegrated after the mid-12th century but Tamil’s linguistic horizon seems to have expanded.
These are unruly poems of passion, albeit in more accessible language than those of the previous era. Shulman goes into some detail in this chapter on the ever-fascinating Maṇi-pravāḷam (ruby-coral), the language created from the amalgamation of Kerala Tamil and Sanskrit, and states categorically that Kerala Maṇi-pravāḷam is not a separate language; it is early literary Malayalam by another name.
Here are two examples, both by intoxicated women poets speaking of their absent heavenly lovers: They say he’s the one in the sky. It is interesting to note that the Līlā-tilakam, which lays out the grammar of this language, calls out the unity achieved by stringing corals and rubies since they share a single colour.