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Fossilization, or the cessation of learning, is recognized as a widespread phenomenon in second language acquisition.
Based on L2 learners’ performances in the two tests, the 12 pairs of Chinese connectives were classifier into four hierarchical groups.
Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the usage-based factors (i.e., frequency, co-occurrence strength, formulaicity, prototypicality, contingency, and L1-tuned attention) jointly determined the L2 acquisition and development of Chinese connectives in a complex, adaptive, dynamic manner.
; (2) do L2 learners overuse or underuse Chinese connectives in constructing responses when the other in a pair is given and what errors do L2 learners make when using Chinese connectives?
; (3) how can 12 target pairs of Chinese connectives be categorized into (hierarchical) groups based on L2 Chinese learners’ performance?
According to these notions, language learning is believed to be driven by the factors grounded in the form and function of constructions in language usage.
This study specifically examines how the factors of frequency, form, function, contingency (interaction of form and function), and L1-tuned attention affect L2 Chinese learners’ development of Chinese connectives.
Furthermore, the study investigates the learners’ knowledge about the distribution of Chinese connectives across different proficiency levels.
Specifically, this study aims to address four research questions: (1) what is the relationship between L2 learners’ proficiency level and language background and the acquisition of Chinese connectives?
Chinese connectives are function words utilized to denote various semantic relationships between the clauses in a compound sentence.
This study aims to address the relationship between L2 learners’ proficiency level and the learning of Chinese connectives, the characteristics of L2 learners’ use of Chinese connectives, and the classification and underlying factors of L2 acquisition of Chinese connectives.