Destruction Forests Essay

Destruction Forests Essay-1
The most recent example came to light this month in the , with researchers documenting a steep rise in human malaria cases in a region of Malaysian Borneo undergoing rapid deforestation.This form of the disease was once found mainly in primates called macaques, and scientists from the London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene wondered why there was a sudden spike in human cases.

The most recent example came to light this month in the , with researchers documenting a steep rise in human malaria cases in a region of Malaysian Borneo undergoing rapid deforestation.This form of the disease was once found mainly in primates called macaques, and scientists from the London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene wondered why there was a sudden spike in human cases.

Some 60 percent of the diseases that affect people spend part of their life cycle in wild and domestic animals.

The research work is urgent — land development is rapidly taking place across regions with high biodiversity, and the greater the number of species, the greater the number of diseases, scientists say.

Studying satellite maps of where forest was being cut down and where it was left standing, the researchers compared the patchwork to the locations of recent malaria outbreaks.

They realized the primates were concentrating in the remaining fragments of forest habitat, possibly increasing disease transmission among their own populations.

They are deeply concerned that the next global pandemic could come out of the forest and spread quickly around the world, as was the case with SARS and Ebola, which both emerged from wild animals.

Mosquitoes are not the only carriers of pathogens from the wild to humans.Deforestation creates other conditions conducive to mosquito breeding.Leaves that once made streams and ponds high in tannins disappear, which lowers the acidity and makes the water more turbid, both of which favor the breeding of some species of mosquito over others.The ecology of the viruses in deforested areas is different.As forests are cut down, numerous new boundaries, or edges, are created between deforested areas and forest.The Zika virus, for example, which is believed to be causing microencephaly, or smaller than normal heads, in newborns in Latin America, emerged from the Zika forest of Uganda in the 1940s.Dengue, Chikungunya, yellow fever, and some other mosquito-borne pathogens likely also came out of the forests of Africa. What research is demonstrating is that because of a complex chain of ecological changes, the risk of disease outbreaks, especially those carried by some mosquitoes, can be greatly magnified after forests are cleared for agriculture and roads.“The species that survive and become dominant, for reasons that are not well understood, almost always transmit malaria better than the species that had been most abundant in the intact forests,” write Eric Chivian and Aaron Bernstein, public health experts at Harvard Medical School, in their book .“This has been observed essentially everywhere malaria occurs.” Mosquitoes can adapt fairly quickly to environmental change.As agriculture replaces forest, “re-growth of low lying vegetation provides a much more suitable environment” for the mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite, Vittor says.The link between deforestation and increases in malaria has been known for some time, but research in the last two decades has filled in many of the details.

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