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The formal logic sits in the background as a backbone, but the emphasis is on meaning and content, taking into account the conventions and idiosyncrasies of language. It’s found wherever a set of facts are presented from which an airtight conclusion naturally follows.Someone wishing to make a point or a case could start with the point they wish to be accepted and then figure out which premises the other party would need to believe so that they unavoidably ‘buy into’ that point or conclusion.
This course will be an introduction to logic and critical reasoning. The first component is on informal and formal logic, and the second component is on critical writing.
An argument is valid when the truth of the premises guarantee the truth of the conclusion.
The conclusion can’t be false if the premises from which it is derived were true.
The second is invalid because the two premises don’t automatically entail the conclusion.
It’s possible for Susan to have aced a logic test whilst working at, say, Microsoft.
Critical thinking also concerns itself with the structure and deductive validity of arguments, but contrasts with formal logic by virtue of its emphasis on the actual language content of statements and context.
Critical thinking is sometimes referred to as informal logic.