Appearance Essay Good Nature Practical Reason

So, in some cases, one is being moral even when the consequences are knowingly bad. For Kant, morality is doing one’s duty, – But one’s duty is not dictated by a set of prescribed rules, but is rather dictated by one’s own reason. “I would like to earn money for nothing.”) – so a good will must use objective principles.

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– Another pure concept of the understanding is causality (logical determinism). we can only make sense of the world/universe, by projecting causality (cause & effect) upon it – though in (noumenal) reality, causality does not exist.

– Kant therefore argues that like space & time, causality is an a priori concept – rather than an actual real law.

The harmony itself is not only a logical expectation, but a necessary reward for being moral.

– As the summum bonum is a duty as well as a reward, there must be a God who ensures that this harmony (morality & happiness) is attained.

Ontology – Kant brought together two previously opposed strands of philosophy: Empiricism and Rationalism.

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– He argued in the 1 – Time & space are thus called ‘pure concepts of the understanding’ and therefore do not really exist (in the noumenal world).Not by reason, nor ‘revelation’ (he wrote a critique of the Christian mystic, Swedenborg).However, he did argue – in the 2 – To fully understand Kant’s rather complex argument, one must really understand his whole philosophy, especially his ontology (theory of existence), epistemology (theory of knowledge – which is linked to his ontology), and his ethical theory.– This cause cannot lie within nature as it is the cause of nature (our reason and will being part of nature).– Therefore the cause must be metaphysical (noumenal).Thus morality implies the immortality of the soul: – Furthermore, Kant argues that, ‘Happiness is the condition of a rational being in the world with whom everything goes according to his wish and will; it rests, therefore, on the harmony of physical nature with his whole end and likewise with the essential determining principle of his will.(ibid.) – Because reason logically dictates that the summum bonum should be achieved, there must be a cause of the harmony of morality and happiness.Otherwise, reason would deliver a goal (summum bonum) which was unattainable (which is rationally disharmonious).– Therefore morality postulates the existence of God.– So, for Kant, at the end of reason we discover religion.Although religion can never properly be known, in a strict sense. – “In this manner, the moral laws lead through the conception of the summum bonum as the object and final end of pure practical reason to religion, that is, to the recognition of all duties as divine commands, not as sanctions, that is to say, arbitrary ordinances of a foreign and contingent in themselves, but as essential laws of every free will in itself, which, nevertheless, must be regarded as commands of the Supreme Being, because it is only from a morally perfect (holy and good) and at the same time all-powerful will, and consequently only through harmony with this will, that we can hope to attain the summum bonum which the moral law makes it our duty to take as the object of our endeavours.” (2nd C.


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