Ap Biology Essay

What would be the effects of a substitution in one of the nucleotides? Describe the operon hypothesis and discuss how it explains the control of messenger RNA production and the regulation of protein synthesis in bacterial cells. Scientists seeking to determine which molecule is responsible for the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next knew that the molecule must (1) copy itself precisely, (2) be stable but able to be changed, and (3) be complex enough to determine the organism’s phenotype. Describe the biochemical composition, structure, and replication of DNA.Discuss how recombinant DNA techniques may be used to correct a point mutation. Describe the production and processing of a protein that will be exported from a eukaryotic cell.Include in your discussion the major reactions, the end products, and energy transfers. The rate of photosynthesis may vary with changes that occur in environmental temperature, wavelength of light, and light intensity.

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In most cases, neither parent of affected offspring has the condition. This trait is determined by a single autosomal gene and is expressed as two phenotypes.

A new population was created by crossing 51 pure breeding (homozygous) dominant individuals with 49 pure breeding (homozygous) individuals.

Describe the fluid-mosaic model of a plasma membrane. Include a description of mitosis and cytokinesis, and of the other phases of the cell cycle. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D.

Discuss the role of the membrane in the movement of materials through it by each of the following processes: 6. Indicate the ways in which a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell would differ in structure from this generalized eukaryotic plant cell. Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions.

Describe each classical experiment and indicate how it provided evidence for the chemical nature of the gene. Discuss Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.

Explain how the events of meiosis I account for the observations that led Mendel to formulate these laws. An organism is heterozygous at two genetic loci on different chromosomes.

methionine – leucine – glutamic acid – proline – arginine Describe the steps in the synthesis of this polypeptide.

What would be the effect of a deletion or an addition in one of the DNA nucleotides?

Begin with the separation of the messenger RNA from the DNA template and end with the release of the protein at the plasma membrane. Describe the steps of protein synthesis, beginning with the attachment of a messenger RNA molecule to the small subunit of a ribosome and ending generalized with the release of the polypeptide from the ribosome.

Include in your answer a discussion of how the different types of RNA function in this process. The diagram below shows a segment of DNA with a total length of 4,900 base pairs.

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